The Balance Sheet is one of three financial reports required by tax authorities when filing annual income tax returns. The other two being the Income Statement and the Statement of Cash Flow. All three financial reports contain pieces of interrelated information that consistently show how the results of business operations during the year, changed the financial conditions of a business entity.
The Income Statement presents a summary of how much of the business resources were used to generate income; whilst culminating with a bottom line figure that will result in a net increase (Net Income) or decrease (Net Loss) in the net worth or equity of the business.
The Statement of Cash Flow on the other hand, presents a reconciliation of the financial information reflected in the Income Statement with those appearing in the Balance Sheet.
That being the case, the Balance Sheet will provide a proven summary of the assets and liabilities of the business after the result (Net Profit or Net Loss) of the recent year’s operation has been taken into consideration
Important Financial Information Provided by the Balance Sheet
The bottom line figure (Net Income or Net Loss) presented by the Income Statement will cause a change in the capital or equity invested in the business. Net Income will naturally result in an increase; conversely, a Net Loss will cause a decrease. This particular aspect is shown as a sub-summary under the Capital or Stockholders’ Equity Section; .
Capital, Beginning or Stockholders’ Equity Beginning as of Jan. 01, 2019 —– xxx
Add: Net Income Realized or (Net Loss) Incurred in Year 2019 ——————- xxx or (xxx)
Capital End or Stockholders’ Equity End as of December 31, 2019 ————– xxx
Determining if the Increase in Capital Improved the Financial Condition of a Business
A financial reviewer will analyze if the resulting increase in capital or equity improved the financial condition of a business entity. This can be done by determining the Working Capital as of statement period, by deducting the Total Current Liabilities from the Total Current Assets. A positive Working Capital indicates growth in capability, while a negative Working Capital means there is capital or funding deficiency that must be addressed.
A negative Working Capital denotes that the business is not liquid. It indicates that its Current Assets, such as Cash, Inventory, Accounts Receivable and Marketable Securities will practically be used in paying off financial obligations that will fall due within the year of operation. Necessary expenses therefore to continue business operations for the next year will rely on Accounts Receivable collections, from cash generated by next year’s selling activities, or from sale of Marketable Securities. Such condition requires a thorough review of how business assets are being used, to determine if adjustments in spending will reduce the Working Capital deficit.
If business resources are not enough, the owner/s may have to infuse additional funds to increase the Working Capital.
In the event that the owner or the stockholders are unable to raise additional capitalization, the business entity may be constrained to secure a short-term loan in order to stay liquid. Securing money by way of a loan though, does not solve the Working Capital deficit. It will in fact result in an increase in liability instead of capitalization.